What’s the Latest Research on the Effects of Blue Light Exposure on Athletes’ Sleep Quality?

March 8, 2024

In recent years, there has been increasing focus on the potential impact of blue light exposure on sleep quality. Studies have indicated a relationship between overexposure to blue light, primarily from digital devices, and changes in sleep patterns that can significantly affect health and performance. This correlation is especially relevant for athletes, whose performance is heavily dependent on the quality of sleep they get.

Understanding the Correlation Between Blue Light and Sleep

Before we dive deeper into the effects of blue light exposure on the sleep quality of athletes, it is essential to understand the link. Much of our exposure to blue light comes from the digital devices we use daily, like smartphones, tablets, and laptops. Night time exposure, just before bedtime, is particularly concerning.

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Research published in PubMed has indicated that exposure to blue light disrupts the production of melatonin, the hormone that regulates sleep. This interruption can lead to difficulty falling asleep, less restful sleep, and overall poorer sleep quality.

An RCT (Randomized Controlled Trial) crossover study published in the journal Sleep found that exposure to blue light before bedtime delayed the onset of REM sleep, reduced the amount of REM sleep, and resulted in a less restful night’s sleep compared to those who were not exposed to blue light before bedtime.

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The Impact on Athletes’ Performance

As we’ve mentioned, athletes’ performance is significantly influenced by the quality of sleep they get. Numerous studies have addressed the impact of sleep, or lack thereof, on athletic performance.

A systematic review and meta-analysis of 113 studies, again published in PubMed, indicated that sleep deprivation can impair a variety of cognitive and physical performance measures. These included variables like reaction time, endurance, strength, and accuracy, all of which are critical to athletic performance.

A separate crossover RCT study involving athletes found that those exposed to blue light before bedtime experienced significantly poorer sleep quality. This decline was measured on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), a scale used to measure the quality and patterns of sleep in adults. The athletes’ performance, as measured by their baseline tests, also decreased.

Reducing Blue Light Exposure for Better Sleep and Performance

Given the potential impact of blue light exposure on sleep quality and, consequently, athletic performance, it is imperative to take steps to minimize exposure, particularly in the hours leading up to bedtime.

A simple way to start is by limiting the use of digital devices before bedtime. Many devices now come with a ‘night mode’ setting that reduces the intensity of blue light emitted, which you can activate in the evening hours.

Furthermore, consider wearing blue light filtering glasses if you must use these devices in the evening. A study published in the journal Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics found that wearing blue light filtering glasses in the hours leading up to bedtime significantly improved sleep quality.

Can Blue Light Exposure Be Beneficial?

While the research has indicated that blue light exposure can negatively impact sleep quality, it’s not all doom and gloom. Interestingly, exposure to blue light during daylight hours can have a positive effect on our sleep-wake cycle.

One crossover study found that exposure to blue light in the morning improved cognitive performance throughout the day and improved sleep quality at night. Additional research has shown that blue light exposure during the day can increase alertness, improve mood, and boost cognitive functions such as memory and attention.

This duality of impact underscores the complex relationship between light exposure and sleep and reminds us of the importance of timing when it comes to blue light exposure.

So, as the research continues to unfold, it becomes increasingly clear that managing blue light exposure can significantly influence sleep quality and athletic performance. By increasing our understanding of this relationship and tailoring our behaviors accordingly, we can ensure that we are setting ourselves up for optimal health and performance.

Guidelines for Athletes to Manage Blue Light Exposure

To optimize sleep quality and athletic performance, athletes should consider the timing and quantity of their blue light exposure. Since much of our blue light exposure comes from electronic devices such as smartphones, tablets, and computers, it’s crucial to manage the use of these devices, particularly before bedtime.

One practical measure is to reduce screen time in the evening, with a specific focus on the two to three hours before sleep onset. If the use of electronic devices is unavoidable, consider activating the ‘night mode’ on your devices or use blue light filtering glasses. A study found in Google Scholar confirmed that individuals wearing blue light filtering glasses in the evenings experienced improved sleep quality, verifying their effectiveness.

The implementation of good sleep hygiene practices can also aid in reducing the effects of sleep disruption due to blue light exposure. These practices may include maintaining a consistent sleep schedule, creating a sleep-conducive environment, and incorporating relaxing routines before bed.

Athletes might also consider keeping a sleep diary to track their sleep duration and quality. By noting down the use of electronic devices before bedtime and correlating it with their sleep quality, athletes can gain insight into their individual responses to blue light exposure.

Lastly, exposure to natural daylight, especially in the morning, can aid in synchronizing our biological clock, thereby enhancing cognitive performance and sleep quality. Athletes should, thus, strive to spend some time outdoors during daylight hours.


The relationship between blue light exposure and sleep quality is complex and multifaceted. The latest research emphasizes how managing blue light exposure can significantly influence sleep quality and consequently, athletic performance.

While excessive exposure to blue light, particularly before bedtime, can hamper the production of melatonin and disrupt sleep, measured exposure during the day can offer advantages. These include heightened alertness, improved mood, and enhanced cognitive functions critical for athletic performance.

Athletes, therefore, need to balance their light exposure with mindful practices. By adopting strategies such as reducing evening screen time, using blue light filtering glasses, maintaining good sleep hygiene, and exposing themselves to natural light during the day, athletes can mitigate the effects of blue light on sleep.

Of course, every individual’s response to blue light may vary. Therefore, athletes should consider conducting a controlled crossover study on their sleep behaviors, using tools like a sleep diary to determine the right balance between light exposure, sleep quality, and athletic performance.

By taking such steps, athletes can ensure they are performing at their best while promoting better sleep and overall health. As always, any changes should be made in consultation with a trusted source, such as a healthcare professional or sleep specialist. The potential benefits are worth the effort, with a good night’s sleep being a key component of athletic success.

As research continues to evolve, further insights will undoubtedly emerge, helping athletes make more informed decisions about their exposure to blue light and its impact on their sleep quality and performance.